What is periodontal disease?

Periodontal diseases are the inflammatory diseases affecting tissues supporting teeth and gingiva. Periodontal diseases constitute 70% of tooth losses in adults. If these diseases are diagnosed earlier, they can be treated easily and successfully.

Prevention or treatment of gingival disease brings the other benefits such as preserving natural teeth, easier chewing and better digestion.

Periodontal diseases start with gingivitis. In other words, gingivitis is the early-period of periodontal disease. During this period, gums are bleeding, red and enlarge in volume. It may not cause discomfort at early phase. If not treated, it gets worse as periodontitis and irreversible damage can occur in gingiva and alveol bone supporting teeth.

Periodontitis is the more progressed phase of periodontal diseases. Damage occurs in alveol bone in addition to other tissues supporting teeth. Periodontal pockets are seen. The presence of periodontal pockets facilitate the infection and progression of the disease. As the disease progresses, teeth become loose, even they can be extracted. 

Signs of gingival disease

There are many symptoms of gingival disease;

• Bleeding gum while brushing teeth
• Red, bloated and sensitive gum
• Gum easily leaving teeth, moving away
• Inflammatory flix between teeth and gums
• Loose or diverging teeth (space between teeth or increase of present spaces)
• Change of links of maxillary and submaxillary teeth while biting
• Change of sectional prosthesis proportion, deterioration
• Permanent bad breath

In addition to this, periodontal disease may progress without showing any symptom. For this reason, it is very important to visit a dentist periodically. 

What is the reason of gingival disease (Dişeti hastalığının nedeni nedir)?

The most important reason of gingival disease is the transparent and cohesive film layer accumulated on teeth called “bacterial plaque”. Removal of plaque by daily brushing and use of floss is the essential requirement for a health mouth. If plaque is not removed from teeth efficiently, it will turn into uneven surface and permeable structure known as scale or tartar. Harmful products released by bacteria in the plaque lead to irritation of gum. Fibres attaching gum to the tooth are destructed due to these products and gum moves away tooth and periodontal pocket occurs. So, bacteria and products proceed towards deeper tissues. As the disease progresses, pocket becomes deeper, bacteria proceeds towards deeper to the bone and destruction starts in alveol bone supporting tooth. If the disease is not treated, teeth become loose and even extraction may be necessary.

How is the gingival disease prevented?

The individual has the most important role in preventing periodontal disease. Bacterial dental plaque should be removed by means of daily oral care procedures (tooth brushing and floss) to preserve the health of teeth.  Moreover, the dentist should be visited regularly.

Daily oral care procedures may minimize the formation of tartar however, it may not prevent it completely. Assessment of spaces that toothbrush, floss or other cleaning tools cannot reach by a dentist is necessary in terms of removing existing plaque and/or tartar. 

What is the treatment of gingival disease (Dişeti hastalıklarının tedavisi nedir)?

Early treatment of gingival disease covers removal of insertions on teeth (plaque and tartar) and achieving smooth root surface. This procedure makes bacteria and irritants leading to inflammation in gum be removed. This treatment is generally sufficient for re-adaptation of gum to the tooth or elimination of pocket as gum shrinks.

For the most of cases at the early period of gingival disease, daily efficient oral care following tartar scaling, removal of plaque and smooth root surface is enough for a successful treatment. For more progressed cases, surgical treatment may be necessary. The purpose of this treatment is to scale tartar in deep periodontal pockets surrounding teeth, ensure elimination of pocket by shrinking and smooth root surface and create more easily cleaning gum form.

Regular visit to the dentists, plaque control and elimination of tartar accumulation are necessary following the periodontal treatment. However, we shouldn’t forget that no procedure is more beneficial than efficient performance of daily oral care by the person to maintain the advantages of periodontal treatment.

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